* For potential new students!* I have openings for possible research projects in the following areas:

**Help build a scientific instrument and watch it launch into space on a 3000-pound, two-stage rocket!**Every summer, NASA holds a one-week program called RockOn for undergraduate students at the Wallops Flight Facility in Maryland, 3 hours’ drive from Towson. The requirements are U.S. citizenship (or permanent residence), some knowledge of the Arduino programming language, and an ability to solder. The 2020 school has been deferred to June 2021. Interested students should contact me*before December 31, 2020*so that I can apply for financial support to cover their costs well before the application deadline of March 6.**Assess the tangible benefits of field trips in physics.**In recent years I have begun integrating field trip component into my PHYS 352 course (Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics) classes to visit working steam trains or steamships. But is the added value that students derive from such activities worth the loss of instructional time? I would like to find out! This project would be perfect for a student with a background in science education (possibly even a science education major) who will participate in the field trip, interview students before and after, and analyze their responses as well as their success in the course.**Measure the fundamental constants of nature.**I have worked with three students (Jon Perry, Calin Reamy and Carmen Cuestas) to measure the speed of light using a laser and beam-splitter, and made some progress under COVID conditions with a fourth (Sean Garnett) in an ongoing effort to measure Newton’s gravitational constant*G*and Coulomb’s constant*k*(or equivalently the electric permittivity of free space*ε*_{0}) using torsion balances. This would be an ideal summer project for somebody who has passed PHYS 242 (Introductory electromagnetism), is interested in fundamental physics, and good at careful, patient experimental work.**Build a flywheel energy battery.**The world needs new ways to store, as well as produce energy. One possible solution is the flywheel battery, which stores energy in the form of rotational kinetic energy! These can be spun up when there is surplus energy available (e.g., from solar panels during the day), and the energy can then be extracted when needed (e.g., at night), slowing the flywheel back down. This project will have two components: construction of a small-scale demonstration prototype (where energy is passed back and forth between a small flywheel and a capacitor) and a field trip to a 20 MW flywheel energy storage facility operated by Convergent in Hazle, PA (2.5 hours from Towson). This project will be ideal for a practically inclined student with a desire to help save the world through physics.**Improve truck mileage through aerodynamics.**This one comes from our physics teacher-in-residence, Jim Selway, who wondered why trucks all have rectangular shapes. Surely we would burn a lot less fuel if we could make them rounder at the back. This might be accomplished with light, cheap, removeable “caps” – perhaps inflatable ones. It turns out we have a wind tunnel in the basement of Smith Hall, that has not been used in over ten years! The project would involve constructing and testing small-scale models with this wind tunnel, then extrapolating theoretically to estimate the possible savings in fuel efficiency in real life. It would also be perfect for a student with good practical skills.**Debunk magnetic perpetual motion.**In teaching introductory electromagnetism, I have become fascinated by the long history of pseudo-scientific perpetual-motion machines, especially those based on the apparently “free” work done by magnetic fields. But while they make for great discussion, it would be so much better to try and actually*build*one and demonstrate exactly why they cannot work! The particular example I have in mind is the Taisnerius engine, named after the Jesuit priest Jean Taisner, who wrote about it in 1572. (He actually stole it from Petrus Peregrinus de Maricourt, who wrote the first quasi-scientific book on magnetism … in 1269!) This project requires an experimentally adept student who has passed PHYS 242 (calculus-based Introductory Physics II).**Put limits on higher-dimensional dark matter from gamma-ray background radiation.**Working with previous student Jack Mitcham, I have calculated that candidates for dark matter within certain higher-dimensional “braneworld scenarios” can be ruled out because they produce excessive amounts of gamma-ray background radiation. These results depended on a rough approximation and were never published. The project is to improve the model and present or publish the results. It would suit a student who has taken at least one astronomy course plus PHYS 307 (Mathematical Physics), has an interest in cosmology and particle physics, and is comfortable with (or willing to learn)*Mathematica*and*LaTeX.***Detect the cosmic microwave background radiation.**There is a widespread “physics urban legend” that 1% of the static on an old-style television screen is caused by cosmic microwave background from the big bang. I have not been able to find the source of this figure, and the first part of the project will be to see if we can reproduce it theoretically using approximations. The second part will be to try and measure it! Apparently this can be done using an ordinary satellite dish. This will be a challenging project for a student with strong experimental skills who has taken, or plans to take ASTR 432 (Galaxies and Cosmology) and/or PHYS 411 (General Relativity and Cosmology).**Study the gravito-electromagnetic analogy to general relativity.**As long as speeds are not too high and gravity is not too strong, the equations of general relativity reduce to a set of four equations that are virtually identical to Maxwell’s equations for the electromagnetic field. These equations describe a gravito-electric field (with units of acceleration) and a gravito-magnetic field (with units of angular velocity). Instead of electric charge and current, the sources are mass and “mass current”. If these equations are valid, there must be gravitational analogs of phenomena like Ampere’s and Faraday’s laws (e.g. a gravito-magnetic field should appear inside a coil of high mass density). Are such phenomena realized in nature? The project is to derive the equations and then attach physically plausible numbers to them to see what they might mean in practice. It would suit a student who has or will soon take PHYS 411 (General Relativity).**Write and test a symbolic code to solve Einstein’s equations in higher dimensions.**Building on work with previous student Ryan Everett, I have developed a suite of symbolic*Mathematica*routines that can solve Einstein’s field equations of General Relativity in arbitrary dimensions and characterize the results in various ways. I am particularly interested in applying this code to a theory known as Space-Time-Matter, in which matter and energy in the four-dimensional Universe are “induced” from pure geometry in higher dimensions. The project is to test the code using known solutions, and then apply it to a new wavelike solution to see whether it has physically acceptable properties. This is a challenging project for a student who has taken, or is planning to take PHYS 411 (General Relativity and Cosmology), is interested in the philosophical side of physics, and is comfortable with*Mathematica*.

If you are interested in pursuing any of these opportunities, or if you have some other project idea that you’d like to discuss, feel free to contact me directly.