ASTR 181 Stars, Galaxies, and the Early Universe


section class instructor lab instructor
003 M,W 10:30-11:15; SM 420 Prof. Ready Th 12:00-1:50, SM 504 Prof. Auburger
004 Th 3:00-4:50, SM 504 Dr. Requena Torres

Office: SM 475
Hours: Mon, Wed 12:00—3:00 pm; 4:15—5:30pm (appointments are recommended)


The Undergraduate Course Catalog describes ASTR 181 as follows:

A course for non-science majors covering stellar evolution, galaxies, cosmology, and possibly other topics including life elsewhere in the universe. Emphasizing determination of the distance scale and modern trends in astronomy. Developments and uses some algebra-based physics.

Ok, not a bad description, but it could use a little fleshing out. ASTR 181 is an introduction to astronomy with a focus on the life and evolution of stars, how they organize themselves into galaxies, and how the galaxies shape the large-scale structure of the universe. With a little curiosity, imagination, and some mathematical tools, you will understand how we come to know what we know about the universe, not just what we know.

Because this class is qualitative in nature, we’ll learn astronomy primarily in plain English, with the occasional equation to help us understand physical relationships 1.

text and polling

grading and credit

Your final grade will use the TU +/- grading system and will be based on the following:

Component % Total Notes
Celebrations of Knowledge (3) 30% because exam doesn’t sound fun; multiple choice; 10% each
Weekly Quizzes, Online 20% lowest score dropped, the rest are averaged
Classroom Participation 20% your total clicker response score as a fraction of the capped total points possible
Lab 25% lowest score dropped, the rest are averaged; mandatory for credit
Final Celebration 5% cumulative
Total 100%

celebrations of knowledge

We’ll have three exams celebrations of knowledge, each worth 10% of your final score, plus a final CoK that’s worth 5%. One (1) excused CoK absence can be made up. Unexcused CoK’s will receive a zero (0) score. Except in unusual circumstances, two missed examinations will result in failure of the course.

weekly quizzes

Each week, I’ll assign one or more quizzes (usually just one) on Blackboard. The purpose of these quizzes is to get you to review each week, and not the night before the exam. They may be attempted multiple times, and the highest scoring attempt submitted by the deadline is the one that gets recorded.

Late quiz submissions will not be accepted unless arrangements have been made prior to the due date/time of that particular quiz

At the end of the semester your lowest quiz score is dropped, and 20% of the average of the remaining scores are added to your final score.

classroom participation

We will be using Poll Everywhere to record your responses to clicker questions. Each class (and some labs) will feature interactive questions. You’ll have some time to chat with your neighbor to determine the correct response. Points are awarded as follows:

  • Correct: 2
  • Incorrect: 1
  • No response: 0

Responses are imported into Blackboard, and your final score is simply your total number of points as a percentage of the total points possible throughout the semester.

Although class attendance is not mandatory, if you miss a class, you will miss out on the points that were “up for grabs” that class session. Missed participation points will not be exempted unless arrangements have been made prior to the date of that particular class.


Although mainly designed to compliment what was covered in class, some labs may be used to introduce new topics. Lab experiments will be posted to Blackboard ahead of each session. Students should bring a printout of the lab experiment with them to each lab session. All lab work is to be completed and turned in at the end of each lab session, so plan to write neatly or print out a couple of copies if you’d like to turn in a human-readable version of your lab 2.

Your final lab grade will be the average of all but your lowest-scoring lab and will account for 25% of your final grade. Note that failing the lab will result in an automatic failure of the class.

Unless otherwise stated, lab assignments are to be completed in the lab classroom during the lab session. Late lab submissions will not be accepted unless arrangements have been made prior to the due date/time of that particular lab.

grade scale

The standard breakdown of your final grade will be A: 93–100, A-: 90–92, B+: 87–89, B: 83–86, B-: 80–82, C+: 77–79, C: 70–76, D+: 67–69, D: 60–66, F: 59 & below (but seriously, you really gotta want that F).

tentative schedule

Every class is different so there’s no way I can guarantee we’ll hit every one of these topics on every one of these dates. But to give you some idea of what to look for and when, here’s a possible schedule we might follow:

Week Topics (with relevant text chapter numbers)
1/27 1. Introduction
2. Birth of Modern Astronomy
3. Orbits and Gravity
2/3 3. Orbits and Gravity
5. Radiation and Spectra
2/10 5. Radiation and Spectra
15. The Sun: A Garden-Variety Star
16. The Sun: A Nuclear Powerhouse
2/17 17. Analyzing Starlight
2/24 Celebration of Knowledge 1
18. The Stars: A Celestial Census
19. Stellar Distances
3/2 20. Between the Stars: Gas and Dust in Space
21. The Birth of Stars
3/9 21. The Birth of Stars
3/16 Spring Break
3/23 21. The Birth of Stars
22. Stars from Adolescence to Old Age
23. The Death of Stars
3/30 22. Stars from Adolescence to Old Age
23. The Death of Stars
4/6 Celebration of Knowledge 2
24. Black Holes and Curved Spacetime
4/13 25. The Milky Way Galaxy
26. Galaxies
4/20 27. Active Galaxies, Quasars, and Supermassive Black Holes
28. The Evolution and Distribution of Galaxies
4/27 29. The Big Bang
5/4 Celebration of Knowledge 3
5/11 30. Life in the Universe (if schedule permits)
Last day of class
5/13 Final Celebration (cumulative) 8:00am—10:00am



Please come to class prepared to learn. As a courtesy to me and your fellow students, do not read extraneous materials, use the computers for non-class purposes, or fiddle with electronic gadgets while you are in class 3. We can take selfies during breaks.

So turn off your phone—or at the very least, set it to vibrate—when you come into the classroom. Thanks.

academic integrity

If you’re thinking about cheating, forget it. Cheating on Celebrations of Knowledge (examinations), labs, or any other aspect of the course will result in a penalty. The penalty for cheating will be determined by your instructor and may include failure of the course and the reporting of the incident to the Vice President for Student Life.


The Department of Physics, Astronomy and Geosciences (PAGS), in accordance with the Fisher College of Science and Mathematics (FCSM) and with the Towson University Strategic Plan, support initiatives that promote diversity among FCSM faculty, staff and students. We are committed to increasing the quality and diversity of our students, faculty and staff while increasing retention and curriculum initiatives. To obtain further information related to diversity initiatives, please visit:


  1. Relax, it’s nothing you haven’t done before, and you’ll have plenty of opportunities to break the rust off if you haven’t done any math in a while. We’re talking basic algebra and arithmetic so don’t stress.
  2. Oddly enough, the easier it is for me to actually read your lab, the easier it is for me to grade it. I know, weird, right?
  3. Except when using clickers, in which case fiddle away.